Sunday, November 11, 2012

The Fitness Benefits Of Jogging

Jogging is considered to be the sixth most prominent and popular sport in America. Jogging around your neighborhood is the perfect way to ditch a sedentary life and start an active one. It is a perfect form of workout for beginners because it requires no equipment. Many individuals are worried about the long-term health hazards on the joints, knees and hips as the consequence of running. These risks can be minimized by wearing good running shoes, therefore the benefits outweighing any risks associated with health.
Physical benefits of jogging:
· Jogging is excellent for your health. It is a great cardiovascular exercise in which all the muscles of the body are employed which results in the toning of all the muscles. It increases the bone density of legs, hips and back.
· It is a vigorous workout and it yields many health benefits which include a decrease in high blood pressure and coronary exercise, lowering of cholesterol levels and burning of body fat especially around the abdomen and thighs.
· Jogging strengthens the heart and the lungs and enhances the circulation of the blood which is vital for overall fitness.
· Jogging alleviates the problems linked with the digestive system by speeding up the rate of metabolism. The calorie burning process is accelerated making it easier to lose weight. Many people are now becoming aware of jogging being the ultimate exercise to lose the stubborn belly fat.
· Jogging also aids combat with insomnia. When you exercise, your sleep is more peaceful and restful because jogging involves physical fatigue.
· Jogging dissipates lethargy and you don't have to be worried about or feel guilty when your meal portions are large or when you want to snack on your favorite treats.
· Jogging makes you look and feel younger by preventing the decline of bones and muscles related to the age factor.
· Jogging enhances the immune system thereby reducing the risks of diseases like cancer, heart disease and osteoporosis.
The psychological advantages of jogging:
The benefits of jogging are not limited to physical level but extend to psychological level too. These are:
· Jogging gives you a boost of vigor and increases your vitality. You are filled up with boundless energy and vivacity. Jogging raises your confidence and you start loving your body and yourself. Moreover weight loss achieved from jogging is a great motivator.
· When you are jogging you feel free and happy. Your mind gets time to unclutter and solve life's riddles and problems. Your anger and aggression fades away and your mind ditches the depression ad stress because jogging releases the happy hormones called endorphins which are responsible for uplifting you mind, packing way the stress and providing you with the sensations of exhilaration and gladness.

Thursday, November 8, 2012

Why 6-Pack Abs Aren't A Realistic Goal For Most People

6-Pack Abs, Ripped, Shredded, Washboard Abs - The fitness media is full of terms like these to describe abdominal muscles that stand out in stark relief. Yet sporting 6-packs is seldom what people think - and definitely not a realistic goal for most people outside of fitness models or bodybuilders preparing for a competition.
First, let's look at the truth about the people you see with shredded abs year-round. In most cases, it didn't take a lot of work to get those amazing-looking abs - they're most-commonly seen on people whose genetics blessed them with few, if any, fat cells on their midsection.
You see, everyone has ab muscles, and fairly well developed ones at that. You use your abdominal muscles in almost everything you do each day. They just aren't as obvious on some people because of the thin, or not so thin, layer of bodyfat that covers them. If you're one of the lucky ones that carries your bodyfat elsewhere, you'll sport that washboard any time you're not overeating.
For most people, though, eating little enough to show off a great midsection will run the risk of health complications if you try to maintain an extremely low bodyfat level year-round. Even those shredded bodybuilders you see in the mags and on stage don't stay that way year-round - they follow a strict and somewhat severe diet for 6 - 12 weeks prior to competing to get rid of bodyfat and use diuretics to drain their body of any surplus water as the big day approaches.
The same is true for the cover shoots for fitness and bodybuilding magazines - either a shot is used from the last time that athlete was prepared to compete, or they spend as much as a month preparing for that shot using training and diet to give them that look - and again, just for that shoot.
Staying ripped year-round would leave you feeling lethargic and tired at all times, inhibit your muscle- & strength-building progress, and could lead to more serious health issues. Remember that every organ in the body has some fat content, and that your body uses some of its fat stores to protect your inner organs. Depriving it of the nutrients it needs will also affect everything from your skin tone to your hair - to say nothing of the hormonal imbalances and their effects on your state of wellness.
A better solution for most people is to keep your stomach area strong by working your abdominals regularly and aiming to maintain a healthy overall bodyfat level. For most fit people, that will give you a fairly flat stomach that leads up to the swell of your chest - a highly desirable body image in its own right.
It's important to keep your abs strong at all times anyway, both because of all the daily activity and to help counterbalance your lower back muscles and their pull on your spine and hips. One of the keys to avoiding, or minimizing, lower back pain as you get older is being sure to keep your abs and hamstrings as strong as your quadriceps (thigh muscles) and lower back muscles to keep the forces on your hips and spine in balance.
By now you probably already know that you can't 'spot reduce' your bodyfat - that is, it will come off fairly evenly over your entire body. So trying to burn off just stomach fat or diet off just belly fat simply can't be done. It's necessary to reduce your overall bodyfat to start seeing any ab development, and that takes both a low-carb diet and a full exercise regimen.
There is good news, though... You CAN build an impressive mid-section even if you don't go to the extent of being totally ripped & shredded. A healthy, portion-controlled diet coupled with a workout routine designed to build bigger ab muscles can let you sport a belly to be proud of during the summer bikini season if you have the discipline to stay with it for a few months or more each year. For best results, consult a certified personal trainer for your workout plans and a certified nutritionist for an effective but safe diet regimen to follow.

Monday, November 5, 2012

Tai Chi: The Roots, Purpose and Techniques of an Ancient Art

The exact beginnings of Tai Chi cannot be traced back to a particular person or year; rather, the art developed over the course of 2,500 years. The earliest form of this exercise dates back during the reign of King Gou Jian of Yue (an area consisting of present day Shanghai, northern Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu) from 496 - 465 B.C. During this period, records mention an art called Nei Chia, which emphasized body movements, breathing and posture to harmonize a body's internal and physical energy. Over the ensuring centuries, Nei Chia continued to evolve, eventually branching out to create a number of different art forms. One of these art forms was Tai Chi.
There are two theories as to who was the first person to practice Tai Chi. The first theory contends that a man named Chang-San Feng developed Tai Chi over 600 years ago on China's Wu-Tang mountain. The second theory argues that Chen Wan-Ting was the first person to practice the art around the year 1540. According to this version of events, Ting kept the practice a closely guarded secret among himself and his followers. The second explanation is generally the more accepted of the two theories by researchers.
Tai chi is believed to have been kept isolated to Ting's village until the end of the eighteenth century, when a student named Yang spread the practice all across mainland China. As the art began to gain followers through the country, five schools began to emerge as the most popular teachers of the art. These schools were known as Wu, Chen, Yang, Sun and Wu/Hao. The Wu school developed its exercises between 1812 and 1880, whereas the Sun style was developed between 1861 and 1932. Tai Chi was finally introduced to the West in the 1960s and 1970s.
Purpose of Tai Chi
The purpose of Tai chi is fairly simple to understand. According to traditional Chinese belief, a form of external energy called Qi runs throughout the body. Inside the body are also forces known as Yin and Yang, which much be evenly balanced with each other to maintain good health. When Qi cannot reach certain areas of the body, the Yin and Yang forces will be thrown off kilter, and the afflicted body parts will fall ill with disease. The art form was designed to strengthen Qi, allowing it to flow undisrupted through the practitioner. When Qi is able travel freely through the body, the harmony between the Yin and Yang forces will be restored.
Health Benefits
Tai Chi has a number of proven benefits for both your mental and physical health. Researchers have found that it can help treat the following afflictions:
• Anxiety 
• Joint Stiffness 
• Arthritis 
• Muscle Tension 
• Balance 
• Poor Posture 
• Coordination 
• Stress 
• Fatigue

Tai Chi has rich history, and can prove especially useful for improving your health and overall well-being. By learning and practicing this ancient art, you can take meaningful steps toward developing bodily strength and acquiring peace of mind.

Saturday, November 3, 2012

Deciding to Inform Off-Spring of Donor Conception

Should I tell my child that they were conceived through IVF with the help of an Egg Donor? Will they be upset that we don't share DNA? Is it essential for my child's future health to have access to their Egg Donor's medical files? Will my family think differently of my child if they know they were donor-conceived? These are all questions that could potentially run through the minds of parent's who conceived a child through IVF, with the help of an Egg Donor. The debate on whether or not to tell the donor-conceived child the origin of part of their DNA is a hotly debated issue, and a very important one. Some key points in this debates are whether or not the child needs to know this information for future health reasons, whether or not it is fair and psychologically healthy to keep this information from the child, and whether or not the child should be allowed to have access to the identity of their Egg Donor.
It is important for all humans to know if they are potentially at risk for certain health problems. This information can give them the chance to take precautionary measures in their life to help prevent the onset of these health issues. For example, if an Egg Donor's mother had heart disease the donor-conceived child would have an increased risk of heart disease in their future. If the donor-conceived child was aware of this information they could make sure to have regular check-ups, eat a healthy diet, and exercise regularly. It is possibly for the child to learn the medical history of their Egg Donor without the Donor's identity being revealed.
Humans have a fundamental interest in knowing their biological origins. It is natural for a child to want to know what DNA they came from. If parent's decide to disclose the use of an Egg Donor to their donor-conceived child they can give a physical description of the donor, such as eye color, hair color, body type, height, ethnicity, etc., without disclosing the donor's actual identity. It is every parent's choice whether or not to disclose this information to their child but keeping a secret this large could potentially cause great strain on family relationships. Studies have shown that most children who know they were donor-conceived are very well adjusted and that it is best to have this talk with children as soon as they're old enough to understand.
Although some donor-conceived children and their parent's may have the desire to meet their Egg Donor it is not their choice alone. The Egg Donor must be comfortable and willing to meet the family. There are some cases where the donor legally agrees before donation to have her identity known to the Intended Parent's and possible children conceived through the donation, but most donations are anonymous. Egg Donor's have the desire to help Intended Parent's fulfill their dream of becoming parent's but most feel uncomfortable having their identities known. If all donors were required to let their identities be known to Intended Parent's, and the possible children that could result from the donation, there would more than likely be large drop in the number of Egg Donors. Intended Parent's should think about whether or not they will want to know the identity of their Egg Donor, and whether or not they will want their donor-conceived child to have access to this information, before they enter into a legal contract with a donor.
The decision of whether or not to inform donor-conceived children of their biological origins is a big decision that should be well thought out. Every parent will have their own opinion on what information they should disclose to their children. Above all else parents should keep the well being of their children and the legal right's and privacy of their Egg Donor in mind.

Thursday, November 1, 2012

How Fish Oil Pills Benefit Your Health

Fish like tuna, salmon, sardines etc. are not only loved for their taste but they also contain rich fish oil called Omega 3 Fatty Acids. This kind of oil has important properties which can be used for solving a number of health related issues.
Researchers all over the world have found the following benefits of Omega 3 Fatty Acids pills:
1. Reduces the risk of heart disease: Specialists suggest that people with heart problems should take 2-4 gram of omega 3 in either the form of dietary fish intake or oral pills every day. The pills can help reduce various problems like risk of heart attack, risk of abnormal heart beat and risk of stroke to those suffering from such problems.
2. Lowering of triglyceride levels: Triglycerides are main form of fat stored in the body which are used to provide energy. But when a body has high triglyceride levels, there are high chances of that person to contract heart diseases and diabetes. Hence, it is important to maintain a certain level of triglycerides. Fish oil pills can help reduce the level by almost half of the amount as stored in the body.
3. Relieves pain during menstrual cycle: Some women endure a lot of pain during their periods. The intensity of pain differs from individual to individual. Omega 3 fish oil pill helps alleviate stomach pain, back pain and tends to improve the overall condition. It also reduces the need to intake other pain relieving drugs.
4. Prevention of mental illness: Researches have shown that intake of omega 3 fish oil pill prevents the development of any psychotic illness in one's mind. It can also be used for treating those suffering from bipolar disorders and is depressed.
5. Asthma: Fish oil when taken by pregnant women reduces the risk of asthma in the infants. It has the properties of improving airflow, reducing cough and lowering the need for medication. In case you are pregnant and have respiratory problems, you can consult your doctor regarding these supplements.
Apart from this, Omega 3 pills also help in preventing cancer, Alzheimer's disease, hyperactivity, dyspraxia in children, miscarriage in women and whole lot of other risks. People tend to notice a higher memory span after consuming fish oil pills. All these researches are backed by scientific proof and proper study in order to show the best benefits of omega 3 fish oil pills.

Sunday, October 7, 2012

Pharmacy Technician Salary Information

Pharmacy technicians work under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist and help pharmacists distribute medicines. This involves taking information and filling up a prescription, counting tablets and measuring other prescription medicines, mixing medications and preparing creams or ointments, and prepares various other intravenous medications.

Thus, the role of a pharmacy technician is as important as other jobs in the medical field. Considering the tasks and responsibilities of a pharmacy technician, how much salary does one make in a year?

For those who are just beginning with their career as pharmacy technician, the salary can start at $7-$8 an hour, while those who have longer years of experience in the field can earn up to $13-$15 per hour. Roughly, that is $26,000-$29,000 annually.

Factors Affecting Compensation

Various factors help determine the salary of a medical practitioner such as location of practice, industry, years of service, and credentials considering that there are also technicians who earn up to $40,000 per year.

Salary according to State

According to studies, average rate for pharmacy technicians is from $12-$16 per hour, and among the highest paying States are:

- Alaska - $18.75 per hour ($39,100 per annum) 
- Washington, California, and District of Columbia - $18.50 per hour ($38,500 per annum) 
- Hawaii - $17.00 per hour ($35,300 per annum) 
- Oregon and Nevada - $16.50 per hour ($34,300 per annum) 
- Wyoming and Connecticut - $16 per hour ($33,500 per annum)

On the other hand, following are States that pay the least for pharmacy technicians:

- Puerto Rico - $9.60 per hour ($20,000 per annum) 
- West Virginia - $11.90 per hour ($24,900 per annum) 
- Mississippi, Alabama, and Kentucky - $12.20 per hour ($25,300 per annum) 
- Virgin Islands, Arkansas, and Oklahoma - $12.40 per hour ($25,800 per annum) 
- Ohio - $12.90 per hour - ($26,800 per annum)

Even though the above States pay lower than most other States, one thing that must be taken into account as well is that the above States have lower cost of living, thus, the per hour rates are still competitive especially after taxes and other fees have already been deducted.

Salary according to Industry

On the average, those who found employment in hospitals are said to receive higher pay than those working in pharmacies and drugstores.

- Hospital - $32,500 
- Grocery Stores - $28,800 
- Pharmacies and drug stores - $27,000 
- Department stores (drugstores in malls) - $25,800 
- Other stores - $25,400

Other Factors

As mentioned earlier, experience and credentials also determine the salary of practitioners. On the average, pharmacy technicians who have 3-7 years of experience can enjoy additional 10% salary increase per year, while those technicians who pass their certification can earn a one-time additional 10% increase on top of the regular salary. These are just a few of the reasons on how a pharmacy technician can earn up to $60,000 annually.

Employment Prospects

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, career prospects for these health professionals is positive and is expected to experience job growth by 32% of its current population of 335,000 practitioners until 2020 - that is about 110,000 job openings for pharmacy technicians.

Therefore, now is the best time to decide whether this is the best job for prospective students or professionals who want a career change.

Saturday, October 6, 2012

Medical Assistant Job Description And Salary Information

Because of the government's thrust in improving the quality of services accorded to citizens, the need for more people working in the medical industry is ever growing. Aside from this, with people becoming more conscious about their health and the number of people getting sick, the requirement for additional medical assistants to help doctors manage their work is increasing.

So, what are the main duties and responsibilities of these health professionals?

Job Description

Typically, assistants aide physicians in various tasks that include front office, administrative, and clinical responsibilities.

Front Desk Tasks. The assistant is the first person a patient sees during doctor's appointments. They welcome patients and hand out registration forms for them to fill out. In cases when a patient is required to come back for a routine check-up, the assistant arranges the patient's appointment depending on the doctor's availability. Aside from scheduling appointments, the assistant also answers phone calls and performs other data entry tasks.

Administrative Tasks. A medical assistant is also expected to perform clerical tasks that involve organizing all patient medical documents and records, coordinating with insurance companies, responding to billing concerns, recording all information about supplies and equipment purchased, and maintenance of the clinic's financial records and other accounting tasks.

Clinical Tasks. Aside from clerical responsibilities, assistants may also be required to perform some clinical duties that include application or changing dressings, collection of urine samples to be sent for diagnosis, and observing patient's health (if working in a hospital) and reporting the results to the physician.

Required Educational Background 
The minimal educational requirement to get into an medical assisting program is a high school diploma. Programs for this type of job are available in vocational schools, community colleges, technical schools, and universities, and can be completed within a period of one year. These certificate courses can lead to an associate's degree in medical assisting, offered and can be completed within two years.

Although graduating from CAAHEP (Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Program) accredited programs or school is not mandatory, still there are States that prefer graduates from reputable and accredited schools.

In addition, these health professionals are not required to undergo any licensing tests to begin working in hospitals or clinics although there are recognized certifications for medical assistants, including Certified Medical Assistant (CMA), Certified Clinical Medical Assistant (CCMA), National Certified Medical Assistant (NCMA), and Registered Medical Assistant (RMA). Passing these any of these certification exams, although not a prerequisite, strengthens an applicant's chances of being hired as it shows one's dedication and expertise on his chosen field.

Pay Rate 
When it comes to salary, medical aides generally receive from $20,000-$40,000 per year depending on experience. For those who are just starting their career, salary could even be lower than $20,000, while those who have been working in this capacity for years and with more complex responsibilities can command up to $50,000 annually.

With this knowledge in hand, prospective students and career shifters can now make a decision whether this career is for them or not.

Friday, October 5, 2012

Impressing the HR With Your Resume

Already graduated from a Paramedic to RN course and ready to find a new job? Well, the first thing to do is to come up with a resume that will make HR people take notice. With so many resumes and CVs they receive, it is hardly surprising that some resumes get thrown in the bin. Most HR staff simply skims through hundreds of resumes, so as to narrow down their choice of candidates. So, what do you do to make your application get noticed? Here are some useful and helpful tips.

1. Know the skills needed for the position you are applying for.

What position do you want to achieve? What skills should you have that are perfect for the position? Once you know the skills needed, make sure that you put them in them your resume. Of course, every single information that you put in your resume should be accurate and honest. So make sure that you only put skills and experiences that you really have.

2. State a career objective.

This should be placed below your name and contact details. You need to have a well-developed career objective. State the position you are vying for and your determination to fit the qualifications needed for the job.

3. Write a summary of your qualifications.

The summary does not need to be lengthy. HR people do not want to read a long narrative. Make sure that you include your career highlights, number of years of professional experience and unique skills and competencies. You only need to include qualifications that are relevant to the position.

4. If you are a fresh graduate, impress them with your educational background.

Highlight the awards and recognitions that you had in nursing school. Remember to state the year you graduated and the course that you took.

5. Impress them with your career highlights and professional experience.

Many career experts say that you should not censor you're your list of job experiences, as this will show your complete work history. If you have lapses in your professional experience, HR people would be left wondering what you had been doing during that time.

6. Remember to proofread.

Applicants always make the mistake of submitting their applications without proofreading them. There should be no typographical errors in your resume as this will show that you made it haphazardly. Also make sure that dates and punctuations are coherent and accurate.

Thursday, October 4, 2012

Da Vinci's Last Supper

The next time you see Da Vinci's painting of the last supper; take a closer look. The shape and design of the table is Medieval and not correct for the time and culture of Messiah. It is no stretch of the imagination to detect all the people appear to be Caucasian. An observant eye will also notice that there are no prayer shawls or a tallit visible, or much of anything else that is Jewish in appearance.

According to the Bible, there could have been fifteen or more people present; (Mark 14:19, 20) but the painting only shows thirteen. Technically, it was not His last supper, it was the Passover meal. The gospels relay the Lord ate meals or suppers after His resurrection too.

Let's look at the most glaring discrepancies displayed in this famous painting. If it was the Passover meal, look at the food on the dishes. There should be roast lamb for the meal, but Da Vinci's artwork displays fish on the plates. If it was the Passover meal, the bread would have been unleavened, like a big flat saltine cracker. But the artist pictured puffy bread rolls made with yeast or leaven on the table.

The painting appears to have a nimbus or a halo around the Lord's head, which originates from a pagan symbol of sun-god worship. Da Vinci used these to identify holy people in many of his paintings.

It is probably true that Da Vinci used townspeople to pose for the different faces in the painting, which would be why they appear to be European and do not look Jewish. But it may be only a rumor that the person who posed for Jesus' face, was the same one who also posed for Judas' face.

I also noticed Da Vinci's paintings usually portray angels with wings. Most people think that angels have wings because of all the pictures, paintings, movies and Valentine cards we see today.

As I researched all the Bible references, they have angels appearing in male form, but never in a female form. They are spirit beings that take human form, have male names, but are never described with wings. Would a spirit need wings to fly?

Cherubim are not little fat babies with wings and a bow. They are described by Ezekiel as being ten cubits tall with four faces, four wings and a ten cubit wing span. (Eze. 10:1-22) They have a semblance of human hands, feet like a calf and a sparkling wheel within a wheel that seems to accompany them wherever they go. (Eze. 1:5-25) These creatures are not called angels.

Seraphim are beings described by Isaiah as having six wings and flying around the throne of the Lord saying, holy, holy, holy. (Is. 6:1-3) John describes six winged ones as covered with eyes and having four faces. (Rev. 4:6-10) These beings are not called angels either.

So, it turns out the common depiction of big fluffy feathery wings on angels comes more from imagination and artistic license than from any information the Bible actually provides.

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

5 Ways to Fail in Applying for Grad School

The process of applying to grad school can be tricky if you don't careful steps. You should be thinking about the decision just as seriously as the decision to get married or buy your first home. The effects of the graduate program choice will be long-lasting and life-altering. Now that you're sufficiently spooked, let's discuss the five things you want to avoid when beginning the grad school application process.

1. Taking the Easy Road

As humans our natural inclination is to seek the path of least resistance in much of what we do. There are some trailblazers among us but they are certainly in the minority. This thought process can't carry over into your grad school application process.

Are you searching for an easy graduate school curriculum? If so, you're searching for failure. Don't get caught up in the wordy descriptions of courses or the esoteric topics that the faculty researches. Work to identify what areas of specialty the program offers and whether any of them match what you're searching for. Increased difficulty will only be an advantage to you when you emerge as a graduate of the program.

2. No Plan for Application Fees

Applying to grad school can become quite expensive in a hurry. While every university will not take you to the cleaners, be prepared to invest a significant amount of money (>$50) into each grad school application.

If you have financial hardship, call the graduate admissions office for the university or program and ask about fee waivers or other options for individuals who are facing difficulty paying application fees. Sometimes waivers are not possible but if you don't ask, you won't find out.

3. Deciding on A University Before Selecting A Program

Never pick a university before selecting the graduate program. This is a doomed strategy. There is little harm involved in being drawn to the name brand laundry detergent at Walmart but it's a huge mistake to assume that a prominent university will offer the type of graduate program that you need in your field. This poor strategy might lead you to settle on a program without the correct specialization to match your interests or, worse, you might settle for an entirely different program than you originally intended just to say you attended Big Name University.

Yes, you can find things to reassure you that Big Name University is right for you (rock star professors, D-1 athletics, and famous alumni) but you might also learn that your faculty is too busy out of the classroom to adequately advise you, student aid is pretty low in the list of financial priorities, or that none of the alumni from your program have gone on to do anything significant in the field.

4. Forgetting Faculty Fit

Faculty fit is perhaps the most important part of selecting a graduate program. The concept is simple. If you get admitted to a graduate program where the faculty does not teach anything that you're interested in, you will fail and/or waste precious money and time.

The admissions process is the time when most faculties assess applicants' fit for the program and weed out misguided individuals. But, you might get lucky and strike the right tone in your personal statement to fly under the faculty fit radar. Insurgents don't thrive in most graduate programs so don't celebrate if this happens to you. Choose the program where you share interests with the faculty.

5. Ignoring Your Goals

Your ultimate enrollment decision should be aligned with your medium and long term career goals. Finishing a graduate program is a great accomplishment but if you regret committing the time afterward, you didn't do yourself any favors. Identify where you would like to be professionally five years from now and then identify which programs have the potential to get you there based upon alumni success, areas of specialization, faculty fit, and financial reasons.

Monday, October 1, 2012

Textbook Rental: Smart Way To Save Money

The nonstop increase of tuition fees each year make parents and students worry a lot because of the additional expenses they need to shoulder. Another dilemma would have been the regular increase of student textbooks in all major bookstores worldwide which brings your head to spin around most especially if you are on a tight budget.

According to some studies conducted by some economist and experts, the majority of college textbooks in the market can increase from 6% up to 10% per year which is certainly higher than what people are expecting. Now, do not wonder why there are so many drop outs after each semester. A regular employee who is earning a minimum salary cannot finance his child education in college without any additional income coming in.

In reality, everyone is not equal when it comes to living which comes to thinking that in this world not everyone can live the life they wanted not unless they reach their peak wherein they succeed in their chosen career and are able to afford the things that an ordinary person cannot afford. Let's relay this situation to educate people most especially students, although anyone at some point can experience college we cannot deny the fact that not everyone can finish their degree for many obvious reasons. Everyone wants to finish their degree in college in order to get a good job eventually and become stable at it.

Aside from tuition fees, the major problem of most college students is the high prices of their college textbooks. Books are a necessity when you are studying but buying those books are really not pleasing because of their higher costs. If before students have no choice but to purchase them, right now there is a very easy way to get the kind of textbook you need without spending too much for it. Textbook rental is a new craze for most students especially to those who have no enough budget to splurge on expensive books.

Textbook renting has been around for so many years but not everyone is so aware of it, but now most online bookstore companies are encouraging students to save money by renting a book instead of buying a new one. Renting a textbook can save you 45% up to 85% of the total price of a brand new book. Saving money these days is essential and a must because earning money is as hard as climbing up to a mountain. If you know when to save and how to save money, then the next time you need money for your future school projects you already have something in your pocket.

Saturday, September 29, 2012

Surviving School With a Tutor

For most kids, school may be tough, hard, and rough. There are certain subjects that will definitely be hard to get through and economics at A level is one of them. This subject is not considered as the hardest, but it isn't the easiest either. There are just some kids who find it so easy that they just breeze through it like singing the alphabet song. But for most kids, being able to understand the basics and fundamentals of economics A will require extra effort.

Now, you don't have to worry since there will always be economics tutors who will be more than willing to offer a helping hand to get your kid from the bottom to the top of the class standing.

How often are Special Tutor Lessons Needed?

It will all depend on the level of improvement which should be achieved. Most of the time, meeting once or twice every week is enough to understand Economics A Level. But there will still be students who might need more time to full understand this subject.

The frequency of tutor sessions will also depend on the level of understanding and how fast a student can understand a lesson. Tutors on the other hand should make each lesson interesting and fun to learn since one of the reasons why students refuse to listen in class is because of the lack of excitement during class hours. Special tutor classes can be held after school or during summer break.

Getting the Right Tutor

Economics A Level isn't a simple subject that will be taken lightly. This subject has a lot of complexities which is why some students find it hard to understand it. Your child can excel in any subject with the help of a tutor just as long as he or she is the right one for your child. Just like any tandem, a tutor and student partnership should happen between two people who understand and trust each other. A tutor is not just a temporary mentor, to a child they could be an older brother or sister, a best friend, and an adviser and in order for a child to improve, getting the right tutor is of utmost importance. The only way to know whether you just hired to right tutor is if you're child shows interest in studying and considers his or her tutor as a friend.

Benefits of Getting a Tutor

Nowadays most class rooms are taught by only 1 teacher but are filled with twice as much students than the teacher can handle. Because of this, most of the slower students get left behind and is given very little attention. This is where the role of the tutor comes in. In subjects like Economics at A Level, a private tutor can give the student the much needed attention and learning experience that is lacking in the classroom. With undivided attention, students will be able to understand the lessons more which will result to better grades in school.

Saturday, September 22, 2012

The Importance of HAZWOPER Training

For many individuals, getting required HAZWOPER training may seem like a step that they do not want to take. It may be a requirement for you to work in this field, but many people believe they do not need the specific lessons on how to manage it. The fact is, you do. For anyone who will be working in hazardous waste, including the risk of having to deal with spills, it is critical to know what to do right away. Reaction time is a big deal. It is also important to know how to avoid bigger risks that can happen at any time. For those who want to work in this industry, getting the education is not an option.

What to Expect

When you get HAZWOPER training, you can expect to learn a great deal about the industry and about your soon-to-be job. Generally, you will learn the safety precautions and procedures you need to know to avoid incidents and how to handle risks related to hazardous waste. This will also include understanding and identifying the various types of chemicals that you could be involved with while on the job.

What Will Your Job Be?

Those who have this type of education will be educated to the technician level. These individuals have the responsibility to respond to incidents. This could include patching, plugging or otherwise stopping the release of the substance in as fast a time as possible. You will learn a variety of steps to get to that point. For example, most learn first how to put an employer's emergency response plan into place. You will learn how to assess the current risks and hazards you and others are exposed to. You will also learn the various terminology related to the hazardous materials including chemical and toxicology names and terms.

You will learn the proper steps to using safety and protective equipment. You will learn how to use respirators. You will also learn the steps to confinement and containment for any type of hazardous material exposure that has occurred. Finally, after the situation is contained, you will learn what to do as a type of decontamination or termination procedure. The goal is the same throughout this process. Prevent the problem when it is possible. Be educated to know what to do when there is a problem. Respond properly and avoid the risks. Clean up afterwards.

Getting HAZWOPER training is a step in the right direction. It provides you with the tools and resources you need to get the job done. It can also help you to get into a well-paying job that you can feel good about. After all, protecting others from these types of spills, not to mention the environmental risks, can be a critical task.

Monday, September 10, 2012

George Vancouver

George Vancouver was born on June 22, 1757 in Kings Lynn Norfolk, England. He was the youngest of five children of John Jasper Vancouver and his wife Bridget. Vancouver joined the navy at the age of fifteen and served under Captain James Cook for seven years during his two explorations in the Pacific. He served as a midshipman aboard the HMS Resolution, part of Captain James Cook's second voyage in 1972-1975 in search for Terra Australis. He also joined James Cook's third voyage where he was aboard in Resolution's sister ship, the Discovery. This exploration started in 1776 and ended in 1778, the first European sighting of the Hawaiian Islands.

In 1780, Vancouver was commissioned as a lieutenant after his return to Britain. In 1781 to 1783, he served in the West Indies. In 1784 to 1789, he started his first independent surveys under Sir Alan Gardner at Jamaica. In 1790, he was chosen to lead an expedition to the South Seas and was promoted commander at Gardner's suggestion. His mission is to negotiate with the Spaniards at Nootka Sound and to explore the north-west coast of America. He left England in April 1791 equipped with the latest chronometers and scientific instruments aboard the 340 tons ship Discovery accompanied by the armed 135 tons Chatam.

During the expedition's first year, Vancouver sailed to Cape Town, Australia, New Zealand and China. They have collected botanical samples and surveyed the coastlines. He then pushed through North America following the coast of Oregon and Washington. He encountered Captain Robert Gray off the coast of Oregon before Captain Gray sailed up in Columbia River. Vancouver entered Juan de Fuca Strait, between the mainland and Vancouver Island on April 29, 1792. His order was to explore every inlet and outlet on the west coast of the mainland. Because his ships were too big, he had to use boats many times to explore these narrow inlets and outlets.

During this exploration, he met Spanish explorers led by Dionisio Alcala Galiano and Cayetano Valdes y Flores during his 35th birthday on June 13, 1972 upon his return to Point Gray, the present day location of the University of British Columbia. They had explored Puget Sound together before Vancouver sailed separately towards Nootka Sound. He was the first European to chart accurately the large island which was later on named after him.

George Vancouver died at Petersham on May 10, 1798. His body was buried at St. Peters in Petersham on May 18, 1798. He was known to be a strict disciplinarian. He never received the affection of his crew but was given so much respect. Many places were named after him like the Vancouver Island in Canada, the city of Vancouver in Washington USA and Mount Vancouver on the Yukon/Alaska border.

Browse more facts about famous explorers.

Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Why You Shouldn't Cram

We all know we're not supposed to cram. Our parents told us, our teachers told us... heck, our bodies even told us at 3 in the morning when we were up studying for a test. But something our parents and teachers never covered (and our bodies only hinted at) was WHY we shouldn't cram. Inquiring minds would like to know, so here we go!
It's bad for you
Cramming is bad for you. It's as simple as that. It's really hard on your body. Think about it: you are staying up late, under a high amount of stress, fueling yourself on chemicals and caffeine, getting up, fueling yourself with more chemicals and caffeine and stressing out on the way to take the test or turn in a paper. How could that be anything other than harmful for your body?
You won't remember
One big disadvantage of cramming is that stuff doesn't stick. You simply won't remember things you cram for. Oh, you might remember stuff during the test - you might - but none of that will stick more than a day or two. If you jam stuff into your head, it starts to run out as soon as you let up on the pressure. Your brain works much better on a "drip system" - you want to put stuff in slowly and consistently for maximum benefit. That's why you don't want to cram. You put stuff in gradually, over the course of a week or two leading up to a test. That way, you remember it, it makes sense and it doesn't get all scrambled up in that gray blob in your head.
You won't do as well
Let's face it - you never do as well if you cram. Yeah, some people can get away with it. They cram like crazy and manage to pull off a passing grade or even a good one. But imagine if they actually put the time in and studied for real? They'd invariably do a lot better.
Not only that, but cramming for every test will inevitably come up short and you'll fail. Trust me, there are few things more miserable than cramming all night for a test and failing anyways.
You never want to cram. Ever. It's pretty much always a bad idea. But there are times when you just can't help yourself. Or maybe you could and you just got a little lazy. Point is, sometimes you do cram. It's important to realize what you're doing to yourself and your body and try to minimize the damage. If you must cram, cram smart, not hard, and take care of your body. Your brain lives there, after all.

Saturday, August 25, 2012

Ghana Life: Dead Man's Clothes

In common with many developing countries, Ghana has both its traditional forms of dress, now reserved mostly for funerals and festivals, and Western dress that has been adopted for everyday wear at work and at home. Although in the early decades of independence there were many skilful tailors and seamstresses who earned their living by providing clothes for men and women, boys and girls, in the last fifteen years of the twentieth century the main source of Western-style clothing became the Western countries themselves. The imported clothes were not new, however, but used clothing known in Ghana as oboroni wawu,'the white person has died' or 'dead man's clothes.'
In the age of kalebule under the dictatorship of Colonel/General Ignatious Kutu Acheampong (January 1972 to July 1978) and then General Fred Akuffo (July 1978 to June 1979), foreign exchange was very scarce and importation was closely controlled. In this economic environment local small-scale industries flourished and developed rapidly as local needs had to be met by local effort. This was the heyday of the informal sector in which developments in the local textile industries supported expansion of the tailoring and dressmaking trades. With a brief pause during the democratic interlude under President Hilla Limann (September 1979 to December 1981), the tight controls on importation resumed after the second coming of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings on 31 December 1981.
In spite of Rawlings' initial vow never to turn to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), by 1983 the IMF was dictating economic policy and by 1985 cheap foreign goods were flooding into Ghana, financed by long and medium-term loans. There was undoubtedly some importation of used clothing before this time, but it was from the mid-1980s that the large-scale importation of oboroni wawu became a major issue in the media and talking point in everyday conversation, as well as a socio-economic concern of the government.
Attitudes towards the importation of used clothing were mixed. Many people felt it was a disgrace to wear other people's cast offs and to burden their children with the obligation to pay off loans that would extend far beyond the useful life of the clothing. The government regretted the demise of the local textile and clothing industries and the loss of employment that resulted. Meetings were held to determine if import restrictions should be imposed but this policy was rejected because it would have raised the cost of living, provoked social unrest and broken the free trade agreement with the IMF. Government ministers agreed that everybody depended on oboroni wawu, themselves included.
In this era of free trade, importation was in the hands of traders who brought into Ghana the cheapest goods available irrespective of quality. Most of the newly manufactured goods came from China but the used clothing came from Great Britain and other European countries. It arrived at the port of Tema, 30 km east of the capital, Accra, in large cloth-bound bales of about two metres in diameter. The goods were cleared by the importers and transported to markets in the major cities and regional capitals.
To be present at the opening of the bales was to witness a social phenomenon of considerable interest. The women traders who retailed the goods to the general public mostly specialised in one line of clothing: men's shirts, tee shirts, trousers, ladies' dresses, underwear, etc. Each was anxious to obtain the best specimens available: least worn, latest fashion, best quality. So when the bales of randomly mixed goods were opened there was a rugby scrum of activity that threatened to erupt into open warfare. Violence seemed to be limited only by a universal realisation that a badly torn shirt could be sold by no one, but this convention did not prevent some sturdier items being subjected to a spirited tug-of-war.
After the scramble for the goods came the haggling over price but here the bale owner exercised almost dictatorial power. Prices were necessarily arbitrary but experience brought a degree of standardisation to commonly traded items. The system was familiar to all participants and operated steadily over the next decade. There were too many vested interests at all levels for any fundamental change.
Only increasing prosperity can bring an end to oboroni wawu. In the twenty first century, with Ghana rising to lower middle income status, people may be able to afford more of the products of an emerging fashion trade supported by local textile industries, processing Ghanaian cotton and embracing the relatively new craft skills of tie-dye and batik. Hopefully, a sufficient number of the tailors and seamstresses of the 1970s have survived to pass on their skills to a generation that must produce the wealth to repay the loans of the 1980s.
John Powell
To learn more about life in Ghana, its people and customs, and the challenges faced by Kwame Mainu as he struggles to gain a university degree, hold his marriage together and avoid involvement in a Kumasi-based drugs cartel, read John Powell's novel The Colonial Gentleman's Son. More details can be found on the following websites

Saturday, August 18, 2012

Improving Efficiency With Industrial Maintenance Training

Industrial maintenance training can significant improve the way your business works. By obtaining onsite training for your employees, you could significant see an improvement in the way they do their jobs. More so, your equipment will be up and running better. It is important to know that investing in this type of education for your employees is critical. It not only helps to improve their job performance but it can also minimize your risks and reduce your expenses. Getting help from a third party educator like this can make a significant difference in your bottom line.
What Equipment Do You Have?
Look at the types of equipment you have in your organization. The sheer number of mechanical components your business relies on may surprise you. Then, consider how much individualized training your professionals have. Do they have the skills necessary to manage and maintain each type of machine working in your organization? This may include aspects such as practical energy, hydraulics, NFPA 70E, electrical, mechanical and robotics. It may include process controls and pneumatics, too. The bottom line is, unless your team has the resources and tools to manage these systems properly, it is unlikely that your organization is getting the most out of the business.
What You Can Do
The good news is that you can bring in professionals in industrial maintenance to educate your team. You do not have to send your employees anywhere. Rather, they will work hand-in-hand with you to make the changes you need. They will teach your employees what they need to do to maintain the current systems while also enhancing the way the systems work. The key here is to provide your employees with the education they need to do a great job at using, managing and maintaining your equipment so you do not have to replace this.
Keep in mind that this type of added education in the process does more than just help your machines to run well. It also helps keep your employees safe on the job. That can make a difference in your insurance claims down the road not to mention in the satisfaction your employees have in working with your organization. If your employees lack this type of training, now is the perfect time to do something about it.
Getting help is easy. You can find professionals in industrial maintenance readily available to help you to get your system up and running. They can even come to your location to manage the process. This ensures that your staff is getting the type of training necessary to do the job you need them to do at your location. Even better, it boosts your productivity right away.

Thursday, August 16, 2012

ISO Certification Is Simple to Benefit From

ISO certification may be necessary in your industry. Getting this type of education and then being certified in it may seem difficult to do. There is a great deal to learn and various steps to take in the process. However, there are companies, trainers and other resources that can help to make the entire process far easier for you to manage. No matter if you are a company with a dozen professionals whom need it or you just need to get certified for yourself, the right organization can make all of the difference in your success in this area.
Why It Matters
Why do you really need ISO certification anyway? This is a type of training and management framework that is used throughout the world. Many organizations and businesses rely on it. Those without this type of training may struggle actually to function in this framework effectively. That can lead to costly productivity loss as well as expensive mistakes. You can avoid this by simply investing in training.
In short, this type of education makes a big difference in the way a company is run. More so, it makes a difference in the way your customer's specific needs are met. When it is used properly, your customers are happier. Your productivity numbers are up. Your overall efficiency is significantly higher. This means that your employees are spending less time on tasks that are less beneficial, more redundant than necessary and costly to your management efforts.
With property education in ISO Quality Management System, you will find that your business seems far more streamlined and capable of reaching your goals. This international standard can help organizations to establish a Quality Management System. In doing so, you will learn how to effectively to manage your organization so that any lacking areas are fixed and any areas costing you time and money are minimized.
For many organizations and businesses, the use of this type of training can mean a significant overhaul of the current management process. This method can improve virtually all areas of the business. This includes improving your staff, motivating your employees, guiding your employee development, improving overall performance and even rewarding management skill. The key is to know how to use this particular type of management method properly to achieve these goals. That is not easy to do without the aid of a professional level of education in the process.
By getting ISO certification, it is possible greatly to improve overall skill and resources. As a business, this method can help you to streamline your success and boost your bottom line. It can increase employee productivity and simply make your job easier. With the right training, you may find that it is possible to achieve more with less.

Tuesday, August 7, 2012

Significance of Corporate Training in the Competitive Market Scenario

The dynamics of operating businesses is changing fast. The market is growing more competitive than ever, and companies all across the world are gearing up to make a mark in their respective niche segments. In order to achieve goals and stay at par with the economy, it has become imperative for businesses to maintain a strong line of skilled workforce. It is for this purpose that they need to organize regular training programs. It is not that corporate training was not considered an important element earlier, but now, the necessity has is much more essential.

Every organization today, make it a point to host periodic training sessions at their headquarters as well as branch offices, both onshore and offshore to brush up skills of their employees. This is done throughout the year to cover all employee bases in the organization.

Planning a training session becomes even more crucial when there is a new product launch in the pipeline. For that, a company needs to train all its key-line officials from the sales and marketing departments on various uses of the product or service offerings. This prepares them to take the product off the shelf to a large cross-section of the target customers. Knowledgeable handling of sales and tactful marketing strategies by skilled workers improves the salability prospects of the newly launched service resulting in earning high ROI for the company; and who does not know a knowledgeable employee is an asset for any company?

Hence, investing in corporate training provides long-term benefits to both the employer as well as the employees. However, while planning frequent training sessions it is crucial for the company to opt for solutions and devices, which are cost effective, otherwise the recurrent expenditures may affect the overall administrative budget plans rather adversely. Availing a comprehensive Cloud-based online class and training management solution may be a good idea in that case.

The solution makes the online training registration fast and systematic, and all kinds of payment processing simplified through secure payment gateways. Moreover, innovative promotional tools incorporated within the software also enable the organization to get the word out about training programs across various departments in no time.

Significance of corporate training is manifold. It facilitates the following and much more:

Increases operational efficiency

With better understanding of a specific domain, employees are capable of dealing with various situations armed with more confidence. Training makes them think critically, ideate things innovatively, and act logically, thereby improving overall operational efficiency of the entire workforce.

Gives enhanced job satisfaction

When an employee is confident in delivering what he is expected to by the company, he feels much more satisfied and secure in terms of his positioning. This further helps in employee retention by a company.

Dissemination of knowledge downward the organizational pyramid

It is important for the organization to transfer knowledge to the base level of workers because they are the ones who take the responsibility of taking service offerings directly to the market. Unless and until they are well trained, an organization cannot make the desired profits.

Develop leadership qualities

Corporate training makes better managers. By attending periodic trainings employees can hone their leadership qualities and prepare themselves for bigger challenges in the future.

Jonathan is a professional trainer. He employs latest technology for online class registration and online training registration that results in more attendance and ROI.

Saturday, August 4, 2012

Elementary School Is The First Place To Send Your Youngster For A Quality Education

Since your child's first experience with getting educated in a structured environment is most likely going to be elementary school, you want to make sure that you choose the best for them to go to. This is one of the most important transitions they will make in life. It is also the first of many that will start them on their journey to growing up and becoming a well-rounded individual. No matter what stage your child is at in their education, where you choose to send them for the K-5 years plays a very important role on how they will respond to the challenges of learning. You want to give them the best chance possible and that means they need to be into the best environment possible.

You can't afford to just look in the phonebook and send your child to the first elementary school that comes to mind. You should take a little time and do some research first. Just as you strive to provide them with the safest and most stable home life, you need to make sure that where they go for an education is the safest and most stable environment possible.

Believe it or not, part of your job as a parent involves selecting the best educational facility for your child until he or she is old enough to go to college. Even though it would be extremely convenient time-wise to just go where the district says, if you want your child to get the best education and have access to the best resources, then you aren't going to get that by sending him or her to the local elementary school.

This is the time when you need to be actively involved in your child's academic life. You need to show them that receiving a quality education is an opportunity that many dream of getting. Instill in them the values that are needed for them to take advantage of what is being offered to them. By showing your child how much you care about their education, you can encourage him or her to be enthusiastic about being able to go to a better elementary school.

This is where your children will be able to see and experience how much fun learning can be when it is done in a safe and nurturing environment. They can have fun and excel by participating in programs, activities and events that they would not have had access to at a substandard school. They will be treated and respected as young adults, while receiving the supervision and guidance they need to grow into respectable individuals. The best part is that you don't have to constantly be worried about whether or not your child is receiving the best education possible. Students will be taught subjects that will help them excel in school. By choosing to send your child to an elementary school where every step in his or her educational journey will be nurtured and enriched, you are providing your child with a strong foundation for the future.

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Why Preschools Are Significant in Child Development

Correct physical, social and mental abilities are very important in developing a child's whole being. Toddlers aged 3-5 years are the most ideal years to introduce them to new things and let them explore life. This is also the age-range when most parents would consider their child going to preschools to aid them in providing their children the proper guidance.

Children, as they grow become more playful and active. And this is also the time that they would need appropriate guidance that most busy parents can't directly give. Thus, such parents see the need to have their child/children go to preschools to oversee their growing years.

Infant education or commonly known as preschool education are usually between the ages of 0-5. This early childhood education provides youngsters factual knowledge, skills and training while allowing them to play, enjoy and discover self-worth, discipline and sense of responsibility. The method of teaching starts through the use of child's own senses.

While the house is considered as first place to learn and the parents are still the best known teacher of a growing child, the need for professional guidance from preschool teachers can give a child an advantage to learn and experience things that will contribute well on their development.

The sense of belonging to a community or group is an essential thing that a preschool can provide to every child. They can also develop good communication skills that include talking, listening and sign language. Through socialization, they can also develop awareness and accountability and learn to be respectful to others. There are also activities that can help them in improving their knowledge and understanding of the world and giving them an opportunity to show their creativity and scientific thinking.

In addition, pre-schooling also involves variety of physical activities which are helpful in children when it comes to developing their physical abilities. Such activities include walking, climbing, balances and other motor skills like running and speaking. Several other activities also teach children to discover that they are capable and can do things for themselves which is called independence.

According to statistics, children who have gone through pre-schooling are more ready as they enter their kindergarten than those who are not. This is because preschool also include various academic-related activities like exposing them to numbers, letters and shapes. These things are fundamentals as they go to higher level of education.

Preschools can be privately held or run by the government. In either institution, children are being monitored and their developments are tracked by professionals who can assess them if they are ready for next schooling level. Privately held schools can be more costly but many parents affirm it is worthy of the price.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

How Weight Loss Surgery Works

Weight loss surgery has been shown to produce significant results for those who are unable to lose weight through other methods.

For those who are morbidly obese, the procedures can be life-changing. In addition to helping patients shed pounds, some procedures such as gastric bypass surgery have been shown to eliminate other serious health problems, including diabetes.

But if you are considering a surgical procedure, it's important to do your homework and educate yourself on your options. Every patient is different. An experienced bariatric (weight loss) doctor will help determine if you are a candidate for surgery, and if so, which type of procedure is best for your situation. It is also essential that you take the time to learn how these surgeries are performed and what they do to your body to help you lose weight.

Weight loss surgery explained

While each type of procedure has its own process, the overall concept behind most types of weight loss surgery is the same.

Most procedures involve restricting the stomach in some fashion (this is called "gastric restriction") to create a smaller space for food. This alone doesn't necessarily restrict food intake; however, patients who receive the procedure become full quicker. With less "room" in the stomach, it takes smaller amounts of food for the patient to reach a feeling of fullness. In turn, this causes the patient to feel satisfied faster and for longer periods of time. Less food is consumed as a result.

Studies have shown that some types of procedures typically help patients lose more than 75% of their excess body weight. Additionally, newer, more advanced techniques have made these surgeries safer than ever with reduced risks for complications and failure.

Every procedure has a distinct process for gastric restriction. As a potential candidate for surgery, you should obtain specific information on each procedure available, so that you understand the differences.

Most common types of weight loss surgery

Here are the most common types of procedures available to those seeking a surgical solution to losing weight.

- Gastric band surgery: Also known as the Lap Band, this procedure involves placing a special band around the upper part of the stomach. The tighter the band, the smaller amounts of food it takes before you feel full.

- Gastric sleeve surgery: This procedure involves creating a thin, vertical sleeve within the stomach, while a larger portion of the stomach is stapled off.

- Gastric bypass surgery: Through an alteration of the digestive process, this procedure involves creating a smaller pouch within the stomach and attaching it to a portion of the small intestine so that food bypasses most of the small intestine.

- Gastric plication: This procedure is much like the traditional gastric sleeve; however, instead of stapling off a portion of the stomach, the stomach is sutured - essentially sewn together. This preserves the stomach's natural nutrient absorption capabilities.

- Gastric balloon: This is a non-surgical procedure that involves inflating a balloon-like device inside the stomach to help limit food intake by making patients feel full more quickly.

An experienced bariatric surgeon can help you identify which type of weight loss surgery is right for you.

Schedule your weight loss surgery consultation at the Obesity Control Center today and find out even more!

Monday, July 16, 2012

The Earliest Farmers

By the end of the last ice age, around 8000 BC, humans were experiencing a drastic change in their environment. Some would refer to this time period as either the Mesolithic period, meso is the Greek word for "middle" and lithos meaning "stone"; or perhaps more appropriately as the Epipaleolithic period, which translates loosely as "final upper paleolithic" period. It was a time when "human civilizations that were affected by the ice age were retooling to deal with the environmental changes that were occurring. As a species, the ice age defined human nature and its behaviors. In many parts of the world there actually wasn't any "ice or snow to speak of", but the environment during the 100,000 year stretch had been quite arid and temperatures had been much cooler.

Essentially it was a time of great upheaval for humanity, especially for those who were close to the areas affected by the change in climate. Changes in climate meant changes in the herds that were hunted for food. Everything changed on the Earth, arid areas became more tropical and colder areas became much more temperate. The world was becoming more hospitable and the herds were moving greater distances away from their traditional migration routes. As a result, humans had to extend their own ranges and follow them. This middle Stone Age period found humans "modernizing" their tools and gaining access to regions of better qualities of tool making materials.

The Holocene hadn't quite begun, but the environment was changing and warming quickly. Human civilizations were widely nomadic and still in a pre-agricultural period. "Crops" to them, were essentially based on foraging the natural supply in a changing ecosystem. As these references of time overlap for different areas, it becomes more important to utilize the identification of tools and their usages in order to better distinguish between periods. With advances in radiocarbon dating the periods have become more clarified. The industrialization of special tools was becoming prevalent, and by 20,000 to 12,500 BCE the climates and environments had pushed humans into a period of great transition.

It was during this time that humans began producing small fine tools referred to as "microliths". They included small spear tips and edged "bladelets"s for skinning game more efficiently. As the end of the early Mesolithic time drew to a close, the people began to develop new patterns of behavior in adaptation to the changes in their environment. As herds were becoming hunted more efficiently, the small populations began to blossom, but large groups made it difficult to continue to chase animals that were migrating further north each year. The lands between Anatolia and Egypt were particularly affected by this change and the peoples there began to make drastic alterations to their lifestyles.

Some of the peoples in this area, who were the first to form settlements and begin the "farming" of primitive grains, were the Natufians. The earliest recorded agricultural settlements were the Natufians, who around 11,140 BCE settled an area near the Euphrates River. This area is today in modern Syria. This civilization existed from approximately 12500 to 9500 BCE, close to the end of the Pleistocene period. They are believed to have been the first farmers of cereals such as einkorn wheat, emmer wheat, and two varieties of rye. They also hunted gazelle, onager, sheep, and smaller animals such as hare, fox and birds. Many of their subsistence foods were gathered from what could be referred to as "wild gardens", which they regularly reseeded, and it this activity that possibly led to the practice of farming.

Two distinct settlements were discovered in the area, one was founded in the Epipalaeolithic period, and the other during the Neolithic period. Because of this bridge in epochs, the Natufians provide one of the only true examples of a culture migrating away from its nomadic hunting grounds and beginning to settle into a "homeland". Many small round huts were found, and these had been "cut into" the soft sandstone of the area. The roofs were likely supported with wooden posts, but of course none have been found since wood objects do not typically last more than a hundred years. The huts were roofed with brushwood and reeds, and contained underground storage areas for food. The population of this area was fairly small and at most could only have housed a few hundred people.

These nomads turned 'would be farmer' civilizations, have left stone and bone tools and buildings behind to tell of their civilization. As well as the bladelets and scrapers, grinding stones have also been discovered, proving the increased development and advancing tool uses of this people. Unlike the peoples of the Early Mesolithic Period, who left little more than a few stone tools, the Natufians left artifacts that prove they were evolving into an early civilization. They were not only able to exist in a changing climate, but they thrived and possibly passed on their knowledge of the discovery of farming and agriculture to other nomadic groups, that would carry this technology north into the newly unsettled lands thawing from an ice age.

The original settlement was abandoned during a re-glaciation period which lasted approximately 1000 years. The ensuing drought displaced livestock migration, including their staple animal the gazelle; as well all of the wild gardens and plants which they were subsisting on would have died off. It was during this short return of a small ice age that probably caused the Natufians to return to their old nomadic practices, and leave the area. Approximately 9000 BCE the "small ice age" receded and a new Neolithic settlement was re-founded in the same area. The new settlement seemingly returned to its farming and agricultural ways, and built new housing from the remnants of the older settlement housing. It was at this time that some of the first mud bricks are seen in the structures.

The settlement population exploded with the return of a temperate climate, and farming became a way of life for these Neolithic peoples. Evidenced by the skeletons recovered during this time period, deformities in the bones and teeth were acknowledged to be due to the rigors of increased agricultural practices. The pursuit and storage of stone ground grains, made life easier in some ways and harder in others. Increases in the varieties of plants and seeds proved that farming was now a part of not only these early human societies, but a tool that would soon lead to the development of many other technologies! Animals eventually would be collected and herded and the discovery of pottery quite possibly coincided with the "Firing" of mud bricks used for buildings. The earliest pottery was found to be about 7300 BCE, but the village was eventually abandoned for good around the year 7000 BCE. It could be said that these early peoples were truly the founding father and mothers of what we now consider to be civilization.